Venus is known as the "Twin Star": One reason for this ... it is seen in the sky as a "morning star" AND an "evening star" ... ALSO, Venus makes "2" transits across the Sun
The Mayan calendar began as a "Birth of Venus" in 3113 BC. The Maya predicted the Sun's magnetic field would shift direction after 3,740 years. At the times of Solar Magnetic Field Shifts; the Sun's interaction with the Earth's magnetic field allows excessive radiation (from the Sun) to enter Earth's magnetosphere/atmosphere, with varying results depending upon the Earth's own magnetic fields & axial tilt.
The Maya predicted that their own civilization would decline after/when the Sun shifted its magnetic field. So, it must be that special condtions would exist between the Earth & the Sun at that time. From the begining date of the Mayan calendar in 3113 BC + 3740 years = 627 AD. The Mayan civilization did in fact, collapse after that time.
TRANSITS OF VENUS: Click On Image To Enlarge
Transits of Venus across the disk of the Sun are among the rarest of planetary alignments& only six such events have occurred since the invention of the telescope.
(1631, 1639, 1761, 1769, 1874, 1882)
The last transit of Venus occurred on June the 6th, 2012.
Transits of Venus are only possible during early December and early June when Venus's orbital nodes pass across the Sun.
If Venus reaches inferior conjunction at this time, a transit will occur... and so far, they occur at intervals of: 8 - 1211/2 - 8 - 1051/2 Years.
The next set of Venus transits won't occur until:
Dec. 11th, 2117 - and -
Dec. 08th, 2125
HOW MANY MILES = A DEGREE?
A degree of latitude: roughly 69 miles
A minute of latitude: roughly 1.15 miles
A second of latitude: roughly 0.02 miles (or just over 100 feet)
Degree of Longitude: at Equator: roughly 69 miles
Degree of Longitude: at 45º Latitude: roughly 49 miles
Active: K = 4. Minor storm: K = 5. Major or Severe storm: K > 6.
The K index measures the deviation of the most disturbed horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field over 3 hour intervals. (Its got to hit 5 or over to qualify as a Solar Storm)
Geomagnetic Storm Levels
Kp=5 [G1] Kp=6 [G2] Kp=7 [G3] Kp=8 [G4] Kp=9 [G5]
As the Earth’s magnetic field (the Geomagnetic field) reacts to an energy output from the Sun by making certain changes; and as the Geomagnetic field changes; new forms can occur which then release magnetic energy fields. These magnetic fields are fast moving, electrically charged particles that then, travel along the Earth's magnetic field lines.
Some, however go to the Earth's upper atmosphere which we see as "Auroras".
The K indexes and G indexes give an idea of the degree and type of the magnetic energies hitting the earth.
Geomagnetic Storms: disturbances in the geomagnetic field caused by gusts in the solar wind that blows by Earth - [G1-G2-G3-G4-G5]
Solar Radiation Storms: elevated levels of radiation that occur when the numbers of energetic particles increase - [S1-S2-S3-S4-S5]
Radio Blackouts: disturbances of the ionosphere caused by X-ray emissions from the Sun - [R1-R2-R3-R4-R5]
DEFINITIONS ARE BELOW ↓
S T O R M S
GeoMagnetic Storm Definitions (click image to enlarge)
Solar Radiation Storm Definitions (Click Image To Enlarge)
Radio BlackOut Definitions (Click Image To Enlarge)
The Earth "Catching Some (solar) Rays"
A Solar Flare is an explosion on the Sun that happens when energy stored in twisted magnetic fields (usually above sunspots) is suddenly released. Flares produce a burst of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to x-rays and gamma-rays
A Coronal Hole Occurs when a hole opens up on the Sun; This "hole" consists of exposed magnetic field lines which get released into space as a "strong & fast moving" solar wind containing magnetic waves & particles ... traveling at about 1.8 million mph. Should the Coronal Hole be facing Earth during a release; then these magnetic waves & particles head our way producing auroras, etc.
S1: < 100 pfu
S2: < 1000 pfu
S3: < 10,000 pfu
S4: < 100.000 pfu
S5: > 100.000 pfu
X- RAY FLARES
X: "Big" - Can trigger planet-wide radio blackouts and long-lasting radiation storms.
M: "Medium" - Can cause brief radio blackouts that affect Earth's polar regions as well as minor radiation storms.